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"Climate is what you expect, weather is what you get" (Edward Lorenz, 1961)


Since the middle of last century fast climate change have been observed by scientists. The earth's climate is subject to seasonal fluctuations, decadal and centuries-old  that are related with natural causes such as the Earth's orbit, solar radiation, ocean circulation and volcanic eruptions (climate variability).
During the last years, however, more deep  and rapid changes of the climate system have been determined by human being, above all due to the increase of greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. With the first global conference on climate change in 1979, scientists have started to study about how to predict and prevent potential man-made changes in nature and that could have a negative effect on the welfare of humanity.












Fifth IPCC Report

The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) is the highest world forum of experts concerning climate. The IPCC has the task to assess  the information available in the scientific, technical and socio-economic fields related to climate change, their possible impacts and adaptation and mitigation options.. The last IPCC report dated 2015 (AR5) confirmed  that the Earth's climate is warming up (the average temperatures on global surface is increased by about 0.6 ° C over the last century) and that human impacts on the climate system is obvious.
Climate change will produce  not only a  global warming, but also an intensification of the hydrological cycle. At global level this implies a rise of evaporation and precipitation. At the regional level the impacts depend by the area around. The Mediterranean basin is considered an area particularly vulnerable (hot spot) to the climate change.
For the future, a further increase in greenhouse gas emissions could be associated with other significant changes compared to the past, such as an additional warming, changes in the amount and type of precipitation, rising sea level and changes of extreme weather events (floods, droughts, cyclones, etc)  for frequency and quantity. Also in case the growth of concentrations of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere would be stopped during this century, climate change and the sea level rising will continue for centuries, determined by past, current and future human activities.